Home

Sprengel deformity

Sprengel deformity. Sprengel deformity, or congenital elevation of the scapula, is a complex deformity of the shoulder and is the most common congenital shoulder abnormality. An initial diagnosis can often be made on radiographs, but CT or MRI is often necessary to evaluate the details of the abnormality Sprengel's Deformity is a congenital condition characterized by a small and undescended scapula often associated with scapular winging and scapular hypoplasia. Diagnosis is made clinically with a high-riding, medially rotated, triangular-shaped scapula, with associated limitations in shoulder abduction and flexion Sprengel's deformity (also known as high scapula or congenital high scapula) is a rare congenital skeletal abnormality where a person has one shoulder blade that sits higher on the back than the other. The deformity is due to a failure in early fetal development where the shoulder fails to descend properly from the neck to its final position

Sprengel deformity Radiology Reference Article

Sprengel's Deformity - Pediatrics - Orthobullet

A Sprengel deformity, or congenital elevation of scapula, is a complex deformity of the shoulder and is the most common congenital shoulder abnormality. Sprengel deformity usually coexists with other congenital abnormalities, particularly those involving the vertebrae and ribs Sprengel deformity (also referred to as congenital elevation of the scapula) is a complex anomaly that is associated with malposition and dysplasia of the scapula. [ 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , 5 ] This.. Sprengel deformity is a rare congenital disorder in which the shoulder blade (scapula) is too high on one side of the body. The affected abnormal shoulder blade is also abnormally connected to the spine, often restricting movement of the shoulder

Sprengel deformityPathophysiology Sprengel deformity is a congenital elevation of one or both scapulae secondary to failure of its normal descent in the e.. Objectives: To address the role of congenitally fused cervical segments, the degree of cervical scoliosis, and other risk factors on the presence of Sprengel's deformity (SD) in young patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS). Summary of background data: Numerous abnormalities are associated with KFS, one of the most common being SD. It has been postulated that more severe forms of KFS may be more associated with extraspinal manifestations, such as SD Sprengel deformity is a rare congenital disorder in which the shoulder blade (scapula) is too high on one side of the body. The affected abnormal shoulder bl.. Non-surgical treatment has been recommended for patients with mild Sprengel deformity. Non-surgical treatment includes modalities such as physiotherapy to improve the shoulder range of motion and prevent any torticollis. In the classic Cavendish study [ 10 ], different grades of Sprengel deformity were treated non-surgically

A Sprengel's deformity is best visualized on an anteroposterior (AP) view of the chest and both shoulders. On the basis of severity, a Sprengel's deformity can be classified according to the Cavendish grading system: Grade I - Very mild deformity is observed. When covered with clothes the deformity is almost invisible Sprengel deformity is a complex anomaly that is associated with malposition and dysplasia of the scapula. This condition also involves regional muscle hypoplasia or atrophy, which causes disfigurement and limitation of shoulder movement In Sprengel deformity a large fibrous, sometimes endochondral, so-called omo-vertebral bone replaces all dorsal neural crest-derived endochondral elements of the occipital region, cervical spinous processes, spina scapulae, and trapezius inside the post-otic neural crest (PONC) trapezius territory

Figure 1 A photograph of a child with Sprengel's deformity: (A)asymmetry of shoulder girdles with the higher position of the leftscapula with asymmetry in the position of inferior scapular poles(dashed lines), and (B) limited right glenohumeral abduction Background. Sprengel's deformity is a rare and complex congenital deformity of the shoulder girdle. The disorder occurs due to inadequate caudal movement of scapula during development resulting in an abnormally high placed scapula. 1-3 The scapular involvement may be unilateral or bilateral and associated changes in axial rotation, shape, and size are normal. 4 More women are affected than. Sprengel deformity is a congenital anomaly arising mainly in the shoulder girdle, associated with elevation of dysplastic scapula. skeletal anomalies, mainly Klippel-Feil syndrome, hemivertebrae, and omovertebral bone may be present along Sprengel anomaly The deformity is painless and many patients are not diagnosed until adolescence. Signs Inspection: Often winging of the scapula, hypoplasia, and omovertebral connections (30% of cases) that can severely limit the scapulothoracic motion. The affected scapulae are usually small, relatively wide, medially rotated and more cephalad than normal

Sprengel's deformity is defined as a congenital abnormal elevation of one or both scapulas from the usual anatomic scapula position. This anomaly often is associated with other anomalies of the skeletal system and other systems. 3,5 Surgical management of Sprengel's deformity typically is performed during childhood or adolescence. 4,11,12 This is predominantly because of the obvious cosmetic. Description. Sprengel deformity: Congenital elevation of the scapula ( Fig. 1) Small scapula with restricted ROM. Often, congenital anomalies coexist. This condition: Is present from birth. May be discovered at birth or after the child starts to use the arms. Usually is diagnosed within the 1st few years of life Sprengel deformity is a congenital condition characterized by abnormal development and elevation of the shoulder blade (scapula). [10337] Severity can range considerably from being almost invisible when covered with clothes, to the shoulder being elevated over 5 centimeters, with neck webbing. [10348] Signs and symptoms may include a lump in.

Sprengel's Deformity is a failure of descent of the scapula caused by: too great an intrauterine pressure. Abnormal articulations of scapula with the spine (omovertebral bone) defective musculature of the scapulothoracic region. arrest of development due to ineffective muscular tension Sprengel deformity is a complex anomaly associated with malposition and dysplasia of the scapula with muscle hypoplasia or atrophy causing disfigurement and limitation of shoulder movement (Fig 1). It is the most common congenital malformation of the shoulder girdle and the male-to-female ratio is 3:1 The etiology of Sprengel deformity remains unknown. Similarly, few definitive statements can be made regarding the epidemiology for Sprengel deformity, owing to its relative rarity and paucity of published information. In general, males and females are equally affected, and bilateral involvement may occur PDF | Patient: 12 years, female Clinical History: Left sided shoulder asymmetry and restriction of shoulder abduction. Imaging Findings: This 12 year... | Find, read and cite all the research you. Sprengel's deformity is a rare structural malformation of the scapula that arises due to improper development during intrauterine life. An abnormally elevated scapula at rest, either unilaterally or bilaterally, is the principal manifestation, but several musculoskeletal defects may be concomitantly present. A proper clinical examination can diagnose the condition at birth or during childhood.

Sprengel's deformity - Wikipedi

Complications of surgical treatment of Sprengel's deformity 1= Loss of correction. 2= Winging of the scapula. 3= Regeneration of the excised portion of the scapula. 4= Prominent scars. 11/1/2014 25 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan 26 Treatment of Sprengel's Deformity. I have a mild case of Sprengel's deformity of the right scapula which in and of itself is not curable except through radical surgery. The structure of my shoulder has always caused my muscles some discomfort during exercise but in my younger days I rarely had to quit due to pain

Abstract: Sprengel deformity is the most common congenital abnormality of the shoulder girdle, resulting from an elevated, dysplastic, and variably fixed scapula. It has cosmetic implications that make it readily identifiable, and may be also associated with functional impairment. It may associate with other structural abnormalities, such as the presence of an omovertebral bone, or bar Sprengel's Deformity. - minor asymmetries commonly seen between right & left scapula should not be designated Sprengel's deformity. - detachment of medial & superior scapular muscles, repositioning scapula caudad, & subsequently reattaching the muscles to lowered scapula. - procedure has 80% satisfactory functional and cosmetic results

Deformities of the left upper extremity include radioulnar synostosis, a four-rayed hand, and absent thenar musculature. The Sprengel deformity was corrected surgically with a Woodward procedure. Discussion . Congenital musculoskeletal deformities can be differentiated based upon spinal and limb embryology Sprengel deformity is a high shoulder blade (scapula), due to failure in early foetal development where the shoulder fails to descent properly from the neck to its final position. Normally this disorder is asymmetric with the left scapula most commonly affected, so it will sit higher on the back than the right Die Sprengelsche Deformität oder Sprengel-Deformität ist eine Dysostose mit axialer Beteiligung, die sich als einseitiger Schulterhochstand mit zu kleiner Skapula äußert. Die nach dem deutschen Chirurgen Otto Sprengel (1852-1915) benannte Deformität kann im Rahmen des Klippel-Feil-Syndroms auftreten, aber auch zusammen mit weiteren Veränderungen wie Skoliose, Rippenfehlbildungen oder. Sprengel Deformity. Total score ranges from 0 to 3,600 being 0 the worst and 3,600 the best. Multiple Sclerosis 1654. Chronic myelogenous leukemia 2119. Lupus 1426. Rheumatoid Arthritis 1187. Diabetes 1532. Hereinafter the score ranges from 0 to 100 being 0 the worst and 100 the best . Physical functioning

Sprengel deformity is commonly linked to a variety of conditions, including Klippel-Feil syndrome, scoliosis, and rib anomalies. Nonsurgical management can be considered for mild cases. Surgical management is typically warranted for more severe cases, with the goal of improving cosmesis and function.. Sprengel shoulder is a rare congenital deformity of one or both scapulae that is usually detected at birth. It occurs due to failure of the scapula to descend during intrauterine development. Although the deformity appears randomly most of the time, familial cases have been reported. Sprengel shoulder is often associated with Klippel-Feil syndrome and other congenital skeletal deformities

Sprengel deformity. Description, Causes and Risk Factors: Sprengel deformity is a complex anomaly that is associated with malposition and dysplasia of the scapula (a large triangular flattened bone lying over the ribs, posteriorly on either side, articulating laterally with the clavicle at the acromioclavicular joint and the humerus at the glenohumeral joint Sprengel deformity has accompanying deformities. The most common anomalies are as following: congenital (formation and segmentation) anomalies of the spine, rib deformities, Klippel-Feil, cardiovascular, and urinary systems. Preoperative evaluation should include these systems to prevent unexpected complications

Sprengel deformity (SD) is a rare congenital malformation of the scapula, named after Otta Gerhard Karl Sprengel in 1891 , who suggested that increased amniotic fluid pressure interfered with the descent of the scapula, hence the appellation deformity [1,2] Sprengel deformity. Disease definition A rare thoracic malformation characterized by an underdeveloped and abnormally high scapula due to its failure to descend to the regular position during embryonic development. The defect is in most cases unilateral and may be associated with other abnormalities, such as deformities of vertebral bodies. Sprengel deformity, also known as congenital high scapula, undescended scapula, or scapula elevata, is a rare congenital deformity of one or both scapulae that appears at birth, although Pellegrin et al., have published a single case in which the patient presented with Sprengel shoulder reported as appearing after trauma Sprengel's shoulder is rare but is the most common shoulder girdle deformity. 7 It is associated with vertebral and rib deformities, scoliosis, spina bifida and abnormal musculature torticollis.8, 9 Between 20 and 42% of patients with Klippel-Feil syndrome also have a Sprengel's deformity.8, 10 It is equally frequent in males and females Wada A, et. al. Sprengel deformity: morphometric assessment and surgical treatment by the modified green procedure. Journal of pediatric orthopedics. January, 2014; 34(1):55-62. Sprengel's Deformity. Pediatric Orthopedic Society of North America

Shoulder and Elbow Surgery: Sprengel Deformity in adulthood

11.1. Epidemiologie, Pathologie und Klassifikationen. Definiert wird die Sprengel-Deformität als ein ungenügender Deszensus der Scapula von der Hals- in die Thoraxregion während des 3.Schwangerschaftsmonats. Horwitz ergänzt die Definition um die Rotation der Scapula um die Sagittal- und Frontalachse sowie um Veränderungen der Knochenform, -größe und -dichte der Scapula Sprengel Deformity is a rare, congenital disorder seen in children. It is characterized by malformation of the shoulder bones leading to restricted shoulder movement and other related signs and symptoms; Sprengel Deformity is a sporadic condition, which indicates that the exact cause of the condition is not known

Video: Sprengel's Deformity Pediatric Orthopaedic Society of

Sprengel's Deformity - PubMe

  1. Sprengel deformity is a congenital condition characterized by abnormal development and elevation of the shoulder blade . Severity can range considerably from being almost invisible when covered with clothes, to the shoulder being elevated over 5 centimeters, with neck webbing
  2. Sprengel deformity synonyms, Sprengel deformity pronunciation, Sprengel deformity translation, English dictionary definition of Sprengel deformity. n. pl. de·for·mi·ties 1. The state of being deformed. 2. A bodily malformation, distortion, or disfigurement. 3. A deformed person or thing
  3. Klippel-Feil Syndrome with Sprengel Deformity and Extensive Upper Extremity Deformity: A Case Report and Literature Review Sprengel deformity of shoulder: current perspectives in management. Sprengel deformity : morphometric assessment and surgical treatment by modified green procedure
  4. Severe spinal deformity correction. June 28, 2016. As a major tertiary center for neurosurgery, Mayo Clinic is able to correct even the most severe spinal deformities. Procedures on complex deformities are undertaken in children and adults, and are available at all Mayo Clinic campuses. Surgical correction of a double major curve in a woman.
  5. Search for: Rare Disease Profiles; 5 Facts; Rare IQ; Rare Mystery;

nach Otto Gerhard Karl Sprengel (1852-1915), deutscher Chirurg Synonym: Scapula elevata Englisch: Sprengel's deformity 1 Definition. Als Sprengel-Deformität bezeichnet man einen angeborenen, meist einseitigen Hochstand des Schulterblatts (Scapula). Die verkleinerte Scapula weist eine Flügelstellung auf und ist oben oft nach vorne umgebogen.Manchmal kann das Schulterblatt fest mit der. Poland Syndrome, Sprengel Deformity & Radial Longitudinal Deficiency (RLD) Poland syndrome Essential Information: This is a condition where one side of the body has underdeveloped chest wall musculature along with additional anomalies which may affect the ipsilateral shoulder, arm and/or hand. Etiology. Cause is unknow

Sprengel deformity - SlideShar

Sprengel deformity radiology discussion including radiology cases. Etiology: failure of scapula to descend Imaging: omohyoid bone Clinical: associated with Klippel-Feil syndrome Cases of Sprengel Deformity Sprengel's deformity is a congenital anomaly that is associated with abnormal descent, altered position and anatomy of the scapula [].The characteristics of the Sprengel's deformity are shoulder malposition and restriction of abduction Sprengel's deformity; The disorder also may be associated with abnormalities of the head and face, skeleton, sex organs, muscles, brain and spinal cord, arms, legs and fingers. [citation needed] Genetics. Mutations of the GDF6, GDF3 and MEOX1 gene are associated with KFS. The cause of the condition is unknown in individuals with KFS who do not.

Sprengel Deformity Musculoskeletal Ke

Sprengel's Deformity Radiolog

[Sprengel's deformity]

Search this site. Home; Sitemap; Hom Pharos is the web interface for data collected by the Illuminating the Druggable Genome initiative. Target, disease and ligand information are collected and displayed Sprengel´s deformity (SD), also called high scapula, is a rare disorder but still the most frequent congenital anomaly of the shoulder, consisting of an elevated and adducted scapula and often axial rotation. It is more common in men and is usually left-sided; if bilateral, the left side is more severely affected Background . Sprengel's deformity is a rare congenital anomaly of the shoulder girdle. The deformity is due to failure of descent of the scapula in intrauterine life. Case Presentation . We report a case of unilateral Sprengel's deformity associated with several other musculoskeletal and renal disorders consisting of absence of pectoralis major, weakness of trapezius and serratus anterior. Coexistence of Klippel-Feil syndrome with Sprengel deformity and omovertebral bone is a rare complex bone abnormality with unknown incidence and etiology. Herein, we report a case of a 6-year-old girl with coexistence of these congenita

Sprengel's deformity is a condition where the scapula (shoulder blade) on one or both sides are underdeveloped (hypoplastic) and abnormally high. It is due to failure of descent of the scapula during embryonic development from its position in the neck to its normal position in the posterior thorax. Sprengel deformity, or congenital elevation of the scapula, is a complex deformity of the shoulder and is the most common congenital shoulder abnormality.An initial diagnosis can often be made on radiographs, but CT or MRI is often necessary to evaluate the details of the abnormality Sprengel's deformity is a rare congenital anomaly of the shoulder girdle. The deformity is due to failure of descent of the scapula in intrauterine life. Case Presentation. We report a case of unilateral Sprengel's deformity associated with several othe Sprengel's deformity is characterized by congenital elevation of the scapula. It is the most common congenital malformation of the shoulder girdle. Congenital elevation of the scapula is caused by an interruption in the normal embryonic caudal migration of the scapu-la, so that it rests in a high position in relation to the thorax and neck

Sprengel deformity Radiology Case Radiopaedia

  1. The abnormally elevated scapula is in keeping with a Sprengel deformity. In this case, the ipsilateral clavicle is also abnormally formed and positioned
  2. For Emergency: +91 97373 27822 +91 99099 88678 Mon - Sat: 24 Hours | Sun: Only Emergency
  3. ABSTRACT. Sprengel deformity is a rare congenital anomaly that involves the shoulder joint and scapula. We treated a young Afghan boy who was presented to the German Level II Provincial Reconstructive Team in Kunduz, Afghanistan, with the complaint of a shoulder deformity evolving after an accident that occurred several years before the presentation of the patient to clinic
  4. Untreated Sprengel's deformity can lead to shoulder muscle hypoplasia and atrophy, reduced shoulder function, and cosmetic disfigurement. Complications of surgery rarely include winging of scapula and brachial plexus injury; Prognosis. Excellent with treatment; Sprengel's Deformity. Blue arrows point to elevation and medial angulation of both.
  5. La deformidad de Sprengel (DS) es un defecto de la migración caudal de la escápula durante el desarrollo fetal en el tercer mes de gestación; 1 es la malformación congénita más común de la escápula, de presentación esporádica, más frecuente en el lado izquierdo y en mujeres, con relación 3:1. Se produce por interrupción de la migración caudal

Since a higher-grade Sprengel deformity limits the patient's function by impeding necessary rotation of the scapula and shoulder girdle, surgical correction of the Sprengel deformity was indicated in our patient Sprengel deformity congenital elevation of the scapula, due to failure of descent of the scapula to its normal thoracic position during fetal life Sprengel deformity Spren·gel deformity (shprengґg ə l) [Otto Gerhard Karl Sprengel, German surgeon, 1852â€1915] see under deformity.. Medical dictionary. 2011 Media in category Sprengel's deformity The following 6 files are in this category, out of 6 total. Klippel-Feil syndrome and Sprengel's deformity.png 498 × 261; 192 K

Purpose Sprengel's deformity is a congenital failure of the descent of the scapula with main concerns regarding cosmetic deformity and restricted function of the affected shoulder. The purpose of this study was to present the results of Modified Woodward procedure in 28 patients with Sprengel's shoulder. Methods Twenty-eight patients (9 males, 19 females) of Sprengel's shoulder treated. Living with Sprengel Deformity can be difficult, but you have to fight to try to be happy. Have a look at things that other people have done to be happy with Sprengel Deformity World map of Sprengel Deformity View mor Sprengel deformity: translation congenital elevation of the scapula, due to failure of descent of the scapula to its normal thoracic position during fetal life. Medical dictionary Sprengel-deformity Symptom Checker: Possible causes include Klippel-Feil Syndrome. Check the full list of possible causes and conditions now! Talk to our Chatbot to narrow down your search Background.The combination of Sprengel's deformity with various types of spinal hernias and internal organ development anomalies, such as situs viscerum inversus (inverse or mirror location of internal organs), is a rare case. The etiology of these malformations is unknown, but their combination may suggest a common pathogenesis and cause

Sprengel Deformity: Practice Essentials, Anatomy

a Photographs of a 6-year-old patient with Klippel-Feil syndrome and Sprengel deformity showing the clinical profile of the patient showing short neck and elevation of right scapula.b There is also torticollis with head tilt towards right side, visible scoliotic deformity of thoracolumbar spine and a scalp swelling.c AP radiograph of chest and abdomen shows Sprengel deformity with hemivertebra. Sprengel deformity. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1990; 72(2):192-7 (ISSN: 0021-9355) Leibovic SJ; Ehrlich MG; Zaleske DJ. Eighteen cases of Sprengel deformity in sixteen patients were treated by the same surgeon. The operation was a modification of Green's procedure; all muscular attachments to the scapula are freed, the omovertebral band is cut, and. Klippel-Feil Syndrome with Sprengel Deformity and Extensive Upper Extremity Deformity: A Case Report and Literature Review * Musculoskeletal-club feet, Sprengel's deformity , Klippel-Feil syndrome, dysplasia of hip, scoliosis Modified Woodward procedure for Sprengel deformity of the shoulder: long-term results. J Pediatr Orthop (1996); 16:508-513 10.1097/01241398-199607000-00018 Crossref, Medline, ISI, Google Scholar; 20. Robinson RA, Braun RM, Mack P, Zadek R. The surgical importance of the clavicular component of Sprengel's deformity

Sprengel Deformity - NORD (National Organization for Rare

⚠️ SPRENGEL DEFORMITY:- Sprengel deformity is a rare congenital disorder in which the shoulder blade (scapula) is too high on one side of the body. The affected abnormal shoulder blade is also.. Sprengel deformity answers are found in the Taber's Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available for iPhone, iPad, Android, and Web

Sprengel's deformity is a congenital anomaly of the shoulder, often seen in children 1. In normal fetal development, the scapula moves down the back to rest in its normal position. However, children with the deformity have a scapula that sits too high on one side. Invariably such children will have limitations in movement of the affected shoulder Sprengel's deformity is considered a rare congenital skeletal disorder characterized by scapula elevation and its lateral rotation, with peri-scapular muscles, hypoplasia and atrophy causing deformation in this anatomical region with limitation of movements. It can be associated with Klippel-Fail Syndrome Feb 13, 2016 - A Sprengel deformity, or congenital elevation of scapula, is a complex deformity of the shoulder and is the most common congenital shoulder abnormality. Sprengel deformity usually coexists with other congenital abnormalities, particularly those.

Sprengel Deformity - YouTub

Sprengel deformity is the main congenital shoulder deformity seen in children. First described by Otto Sprengel in 1891, it consists of a high-riding, dysplastic, and malrotated scapula leading to functional and cosmetic impairments. It has never been reported in siblings This page is based on the copyrighted Wikipedia article Sprengel%27s_deformity ; it is used under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. You may redistribute it, verbatim or modified, providing that you comply with the terms of the CC-BY-SA. Cookie-policy; To contact us: mail to admin@qwerty.wik

Sprengel's deformity in Klippel-Feil syndrom

  1. Sprengel Deformity Congenital Elevation of Scapula - YouTub
  2. Evidence-Based Treatment of Sprengel Deformity
  3. Sprengel's Deformity of the Shoulder Best Treatment in
  4. Sprengel Deformity Treatment & Management: Approach

OMIM Entry - % 184400 - SPRENGEL DEFORMIT

  1. Sprengel Deformity: Background, Anatomy, Pathophysiolog
  2. Case Report: Sprengel's deformity: association with
  3. Cervical myelopathy secondary to omovertebral bone in the
Sprengel's Deformity (Picture) - BabyCenterKlippel Feil Syndrome - RadsourcePhysical examination of the shoulderSprengel deformity
  • سماقية قطونيل.
  • كم سعر طابعة جوال ايفون.
  • حبوب منع الحمل ميكروجينون والرضاعة.
  • الأصائل والبكور.
  • رئيسة كرواتيا.
  • تهنئة عيد الفطر باسمك.
  • كراتي دو كاتا هيان شودان.
  • تقرير عن رواية قمر على سمرقند.
  • Master bedroom With bathroom and walk in closet floor plans.
  • حل مشكلة الصمت بين الزوجين.
  • اذا احد سبني وش ارد عليه.
  • سعر شرائح الجبنة الشيدر.
  • قصص عربية السحر المستحيل.
  • Light out.
  • تعريف الفواكه.
  • أيفون ١١ أصفر.
  • تشكيلة المنتخب الجزائري.
  • استخدامات طاقة الرياح PDF.
  • من انواع افلام الرعب من ٥.
  • Dolphin Mall movie theater schedule.
  • Index of Camelot season 1.
  • ظهور حبوب تحت الأنف.
  • منتجع لافيرا حائل.
  • أفضل بيانو.
  • CTF معنى.
  • إذا مرضت فَهُوَ يشفين بالصور.
  • جزيرة فيلكا الآن.
  • سعر مكنسة هوفر 2000 وات برميل.
  • سياسات قسم التعقيم.
  • تحميل اغنية اندرتيكر القديمة.
  • حجز فندق البستان.
  • موقع مزيكا 2دى.
  • 910 رمز قبيلة.
  • علاج الكحة الحنجرية عند الكبار.
  • المسافة بين مركز القوس وطرفه.
  • حكم رضاع الكبير عند الشيعة.
  • طريقة عمل كعك العيد بالطحين.
  • رقية سرطان الثدي مكتوبة.
  • منتدى عدلات للديكور.
  • فورد اسكيب ٢٠٠٨.
  • طريقة عمل سلطة الفواكه بالزبادى.